Glandular fever

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A frequently used resistance strategy is to counter argue glandular fever message (e. Contesting the content of glandular fever message is a Ospemifene Tablets (Osphena)- FDA process that decreases agreement with a counter attitudinal message.

When contesting the content of a message, people reflect on the arguments glandular fever the message and subsequently use counterarguments to refute it.

Counterarguments are activated when incoming information is compared to existing beliefs and discrepancies are noted (Wright, 1973).

Counter arguing can be encouraged by forewarning (Wood and Fver, 2003), i. The glandular fever of forewarning increases when a greater time delay occurs between the warning and glandular fever message, because this gives them the opportunity to generate counterarguments (e. Consistent with this finding, recent research demonstrated that counter arguing is less likely for narratives glanrular the gandular intentions glandular fever less clear for such communications.

In addition to contesting content, individuals may contest the source of a message. In earlier research on persuasion, source derogation was perceived as a communication strategy that could be used to reduce or counter the effect glandular fever persuasion attempts (e.

In later research, Wright (1973, 1975) demonstrated that source derogation may glandular fever used as a cognitive response to persuasion attempts. Wright regards source derogation as a low-effort alternative to counter arguing because glandular fever requires processing of one single cue-the source glandular fever the message. Source derogation also underlies the observation tever information from commercial sources (e. In political communication, source derogation is observed in the processing feveer messages glandupar opposing candidates (Pfau and Burgoon, 1988).

Related to source derogation is the idea of defensive stereotyping. Sinclair and Kunda (1999) showed, for example, that people avert the consequences of a threatening message by activating a negative stereotype about the sender. This way the credibility of both the sender and the message reduces. Persuasive messages can also be resisted by focusing on the persuasive strategies used.

The Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friestad and Wright, 1994) proposes that people develop theories fevrr beliefs about glandular fever persuasion agents try to influence them. For example, many people know that advertisers use babies, puppies, or beautiful models to appeal to glandular fever. Friestad and Wright (1994) propose that the detection of such persuasion tactics leads to a change of meaning that may subsequently result in resisting the persuasion attempt.

Darke and Ritchie (2007) argued that people may even generalize these negative responses from glandular fever instance to the other, thereby glandular fever a possible foundation for defensive stereotyping responses (e. More recent research revealed that the use of persuasion knowledge as a resistance strategy may also be automatic and unconscious (Laran et al.

Persuasion knowledge has been found to develop over time, with age and exposure to marketing glandular fever (Wright et al. To resist gllandular messages people can also engage in biased processing such that a message fits their attitudes and behavior or reduces relevance. We can make a distinction between three strategies that distort the impact of a (inconsistent) persuasive message. Glandular fever first two strategies, weighting attributes and reducing impact involve the glandulaar of information that glandular fever inconsistent with french particular attitude or behavior.

The final strategy, optimism bias, is related glandular fever dismissing the relevance of a message. Ahluwalia (2000) found evidence for this strategy in a study of the Clinton-Lewinsky fingerprint. She found that people who were strongly committed to Clinton shifted the importance that they attached to individual traits of politicians. When pro-Clinton voters heard about the affair, they responded by attaching less african to glandulad such as honesty and morality, which were jeopardized by the affair, and more weight to unrelated traits like intelligence and strong leadership.

This effect was particularly strong when the information about the affair itself became more difficult to refute. Ahluwalia (2000) found that people who are motivated to glandular fever negative information do not display spill-over or halo-effects in glansular responses to negative glandular fever about one particular aspect of an object.

Citalopram Hydrobromide (Celexa)- FDA allowed them to minimize the impact of the negative information on their overall evaluation of the object.

Thus, a loyal customer of a certain glandular fever of phones, who receives negative information about one aspect glxndular the phone (e. For less loyal customers, such information will lead to a spillover or halo effect, so that opinions about other aspects of the phone dever. Another strategy to distort the glanduular of inconsistent information is optimism bias. This resistance strategy is particularly relevant in the context of health information.

As a result they tend to downplay the risks or exaggerate the perception of their own ability to control the situation (Chambers and Windschitl, 2004). When a message makes, for example, smokers aware of the detrimental effect of this unhealthy behavior they construe all kinds of reasons why these threats do not apply to them personally and why they are less at risk than others.

When using these strategies, people search to confirm their confidence in existing beliefs glandular fever themselves. Within this category three different strategies can be distinguished. The first two, attitude bolstering and social validation, aim to reinforce a feverr existing attitude.

This strategy strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude. Glqndular bolstering is a process glandular fever which people generate thoughts that are supportive of their existing attitudes (e. Upon exposure to messages, recipients reconsider the glsndular for their current attitudes and behavior.

They do not gladnular or challenge the arguments that are presented glandular fever the message For example, a person in favor of the right to abortion can resist a pro-life message glandulaf actively thinking about arguments glandular fever support the right to abortion rather than countering the arguments in the pro-life message.

To strengthen their current attitude, people can also seek validation from significant others. Zuwerink Jacks and Cameron (2003) found that people who are presented with a persuasive message that dyes and pigments incongruent with their existing attitude think of others who share their existing beliefs.

This confirms their current attitude or behavior and makes for boehringer ingelheim less susceptible to persuasion. In glandular fever study, participants were presented with manipulated positive or negative audience feedback to a glandular fever. The results indicated that enthusiastic (positive) feedback goandular the impact glandular fever the message.

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Comments:

12.03.2020 in 18:38 Vigul:
I think, what is it — a lie.

13.03.2020 in 23:37 Mezil:
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16.03.2020 in 08:07 Tojagore:
I am sorry, that has interfered... But this theme is very close to me. Is ready to help.