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Theories about the causes of psoriasis need to explain why the skin is red, Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum, and thickened. Current theories are exploring the TH17 pathway and release of the cytokine IL17A. Psoriasis usually presents with symmetrically distributed, red, scaly plaques with well-defined edges.

The scale is typically silvery white, except Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum skin Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum where the plaques Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum appear shiny with a moist peeling surface.

The most common sites are Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum, elbows, and knees, but any part of the skin can be involved. The plaques are usually very persistent without treatment. Itch is mostly mild but may be severe in some patients, leading to scratching and lichenification characterised by thickened leathery skin and increased skin markings.

Painful skin cracks or fissures may occur. When psoriatic plaques clear up, they may leave brown or pale marks that can be expected to fade over several months.

Certain features of psoriasis can be categorised to help determine appropriate investigations and treatment pathways. Guttate psoriasis Chronic plaque psoriasis Flexural psoriasis Scalp psoriasis Sebopsoriasis Sebopsoriasis of ear Palmoplantar psoriasis Nail psoriasis Erythrodermic psoriasis Generalised pustulosis and localised palmoplantar pustulosis are no longer classified within the Omnaris (Ciclesonide Nasal Spray)- Multum spectrum.

Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis in all racial groups. Non-Caucasians tend to have more extensive skin involvement than Caucasians.

Asian populations are reported to have the highest percentage of body surface area involvement. In skin of colour the plaques are typically thicker with more pronounced silver scale and Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum. The pinkness of early patches may be more difficult to appreciate resulting in a low Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum assessment.

The thick plaques may appear violet or dark in colour. Plaque psoriasis commonly resolves to leave hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation in skin of colour, which further impacts quality of life even after disease clearance. Other types of psoriasis show variable rates in different skin types. Palmoplantar psoriasis is reported to be most common in the Indian population.

Non-Caucasians are more likely to present with pustular and erythrodermic psoriasis than Caucasians, whereas flexural psoriasis is said to occur at a lower rate in skin of colour. Plaque psoriasis in skin of colour Patients with psoriasis are more likely than others to have associated mind memory conditions such as are listed here.

Psoriasis is diagnosed by its clinical features. If necessary, diagnosis is supported by typical skin biopsy findings. Medical assessment entails a careful history, examination, questioning about the effect of psoriasis on daily life, and evaluation of comorbid factors.

Patients with psoriasis should ensure they are well informed about their skin condition and its treatment. There are benefits from Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum smoking, avoiding excessive alcohol, and maintaining optimal weight. Mild psoriasis is generally treated with topical agents alone. Which treatment is selected may depend on body site, extent and severity of psoriasis.

Most psoriasis centres dialog roche com phototherapy with ultraviolet (UV) radiation, often in combination with topical or systemic agents. The most common treatments are:Systemic corticosteroids are best avoided due to a risk of severe withdrawal flare of psoriasis and adverse effects.

Biologics or targeted therapies are reserved for severe psoriasis resistant to conventional treatment mainly because of expense, as side effects compare favourably with other systemic agents. Many other monoclonal antibodies are under investigation in the treatment of psoriasis. Oral agents working through the protein kinase pathways are also under investigation.

The Simplified Psoriasis Index (SPI): a practical tool for assessing psoriasis. Feldman SR, Fleischer AB Jr, Reboussin DM, et al. The self-administered psoriasis area and severity Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum is valid and reliable. Phase 2 trial of selective tyrosine kinase 2 inhibition in psoriasis. Tofacitinib: a new oral Janus kinase inhibitor for psoriasis. PubMed Bibliography for psoriasis in skin of colourAmico S, Barnetche T, Dequidt L, et al.

Characteristics of postinflammatory hyper- and hypopigmentation Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride)- Multum patients weight post psoriasis: a survey study.

PubMed Geng A, McDonald C. In: Taylor SC, Kelly AP, Lim HW, Serrano AMA (eds). Taylor and Kelly's Dermatology for Skin of Color, 2nd edn.

McGraw Hill, 2016: Chapter 24.



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