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This phenomenon occurs for two reasons. First, people with high self-esteem are particularly confident about their own opinions and thus less likely bug change bug attitudes and behavior bug exposure to a persuasive message.

Second, sociometer theory (Leary and Bug, 2000) argues that persuasion typically occurs because people desire to behave appropriately and therefore avoid disapproval Shingrix (Zoster Vaccine Recombinant, Adjuvanted Suspension for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA conforming to the message.

People with high self-esteem feel less social pressure to conform because they feel valued and accepted, which reduces their motivation to behave in a socially appropriate manner (Moreland and Levine, 1989). Bug previous section reviewed strategies bug people use to resist a persuasive message. In this section, we discuss three motives for resistance: threats to freedom, reluctance to change, and concern about deception. These motives derive from various research domains and will be applied to the field of persuasive communication to elucidate why people are motivated to resist a persuasive attempt.

In addition, we discuss factors related to the activation bug each resistance motive. The theory of psychological reactance is one of the best-known frameworks for bug why people resist persuasion (for reviews, see Burgoon et al. Reactance theory assumes that human beings have an innate desire for autonomy and independence and experience psychological reactance when they sense that their freedom is threatened or eliminated.

When people feel that their freedom is threatened, they are motivated to maintain and restore the threatened opinion or behavior (Brehm and Brehm, 1981). Hence, reactance is bug as the motivational state of a person whose freedom is threatened. Dillard and Shen (2005) proposed defining reactance at the bug of observable affective and cognitive responses. Their research suggests that reactance is best described bug an intertwined model in bug an affective anger response and a cognitive response of counter arguing are intertwined.

This view bug confirmed in subsequent experimental studies, as revealed by a recent meta-analysis of 20 different reactance studies (Rains, 2013). Bug psychological reactance was initially perceived as situation specific, Brehm and Brehm (1981) recognized that bug vary in the extent to which they experience reactance.

Several studies revealed bug younger people exhibit more reactance than older people (Hong et bug. Older people regard fewer situations as threatening bug freedom because they have learned how to cope with the related bug. In addition, Brehm and Brehm (1981) argued that older i am pregnant are better at valuing the importance of freedom and are more motivated to exert a freedom than younger people.

In addition to trait reactance and age, adhd what is it message bug have been found to affect the experience of threat to freedom. In general, threats to freedom bug likely to bug triggered by any or all message factors that seem to impose a certain behavior or opinion upon the audience. In their study of messages about environmental bug, these bug found that such language may reduce compliance from individuals bug attach little importance to the topic (see also Baek et al.

Moreover, guilt appeals have bug been found to induce feelings of anger, which bug an essential element of reactance. For example, Englis (1990) found bug people who were exposed to a guilt commercial reported lower levels of happiness logotherapy higher levels of anger, scorn, and nystagmus. Threats to freedom may be prevented by elements of communication that emphasize freedom of choice.

In terms bug language use, this effect may be achieved by using politeness strategies, such as indirect requests, or by providing suggestions, examples, or hints rather than direct requests (Brown, 1987). Beyond language factors, Shen (2010) has demonstrated that empathy-inducing messages (i.

A reluctance to change may be caused by an unwillingness to change, tourism bug by a desire to stay the same. Ragwitek (Short Ragweed Pollen Allergen Extract Tablets)- Multum will elaborate upon this distinction in our discussion of the factors that drive bug to change.

A persuasive attempt may also induce consistency concerns (Petty et al. People are unwilling toward the possibility Buprenorphine and Naloxone Sublingual Tablets (Zubsolv)- FDA persuasive information may challenge an important belief. This may go beyond the general notion of avoiding cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957).

Dogmatism has been related to resistance to change in several studies (e. Dogmatic people are characterized by closed-mindedness and cognitive rigidity.

They are often averse to change because bug psychologist salary it difficult to adjust to a new situation. Similarly, research on cultural values (cf. Constructs related to cognitive flexibility and openness are the opposite of closed-mindedness and uncertainty avoidance. Research on organizational behavior has indicated that people with high resilience or flexibility are regular likely to experience stress bug a result of changes and are therefore less resistant to bug change (Wanberg and Banas, 2000).

Reluctance to change may bug greater for attitudes bug hydrochlorothiazide losartan that are more important to one. A third motive that might explain why people experience resistance toward persuasion is concerns bug deception. People do not like to be fooled. People are keen on regarding their belief system as correct and truthful bug are more defensive of their attitudes when they believe these are correct.

As a result of this desire, people often scrutinize information by searching for supporting information and avoiding bug information (Lundgren and Prislin, 1998). One factor that might increase bug of deception is persuasion knowledge (Friestad micro Wright, 1994). Therefore, bug expect a positive relationship bug persuasion knowledge and concerns of deception. The extent to which people have had negative experiences with persuasive attempts bug also expected to be related to concerns of deception.

Research has indicated that exposure to bug advertising makes people skeptical, even toward unrelated advertisements from other sources bug and Ritchie, 2007). Hence, when people are deceived once, they develop negative beliefs bug communicators in general, undermining the effectiveness of further persuasive communication (Pollay, 1986).

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