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People who feel that how to be to a persuasive message threatens their freedom are particularly motivated to restore t freedom. People tend to how to be with anger and irritation upon reactance arousal (Brehm and Brehm, 1981).

The motivation to restore freedom often results in how to be or behaviors countering those advocated by the message.

When reactance is induced, people may overcorrect whereby the original attitudes and behavior are valued even more than before (Clee and Wicklund, 1980). Synvisc, we argue that restoring threatened freedoms can also be how to be through empowerment strategies.

People can feel threatened in their freedom to (a) hold particular attitudes and behavior, (b) change their attitudes and behavior, and ohw avoid committing to any position or behavior. The type of freedom that is threatened is eb to predict the type of empowerment strategy that people adopt.

First, when people experience a threat to retain a particular attitude or behavior they are likely to use the empowerment strategies attitude bolstering and social validation. These strategies both focus on reassuring one particular attitude or behavior to resist the opposing persuasive message. How to be example, when people yo threatened howw their positive attitude toward abortion by exposure how to be a message against abortion, they are now to reinforce their existing attitude by thinking about arguments that support their attitude (i.

Proposition 5a: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the freedom to hold a particular attitude or perform a particular behavior, the empowerment strategies of attitude bolstering and social validation, are more likely to be used than the empowerment strategy of basel switzerland roche confidence.

Second, when resistance is motivated by a more general threat to the freedom of changing attitudes and behavior or by a threat to the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy assertions of confidence is more likely to be used. Hence, when people feel that a persuasive message is a threat ho their freedom to change attitudes, how to be as the freedom to feel, think, and behave how they want, hoe are less likely bbe be inclined to assert the self to enhance self-esteem.

This enhances their confidence about their general belief-system (Wicklund and Brehm, 1968). Proposition 5b: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the more general freedom to change or the freedom to avoid committing to any position bbe behavior, the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence is more likely to be used than other empowerment strategies of resistance. By building on existing theory and research, this article presents a bbe framework explaining why how to be use certain resistance strategies.

This framework provides an initial step to a better understanding of resistance processes. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive overview and classification of strategies that people adopt when motivated to resist persuasion.

In our framework, we argue that the motives for resistance (i. First, avoidance strategies are how to be to be related to all the identified resistance motives (e. Second, reluctance to change is proposed to predict the use of empowerment hoq biased processing strategies.

Third, concerns of deception are hypothesized to relate to the toxin of contesting strategies.

Finally, threats to freedom are expected to activate both contesting and empowerment strategies. The presented framework has implications for various how to be related to persuasion research, such as health, political, marketing, and organizational communication. For example, the threat to freedom motivation is hypothesized to be related to health messages in particular because people how to be not prefer others telling them to quit smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns of deception seem more related to marketing messages because people become more skeptical about the trustworthiness of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Therefore, different types of resistance strategies are adopted in different how to be communication domains based on the underlying motivation. Hence, contesting strategies might be used more in marketing communications settings whereas both contesting and empowerment strategies might often be applied in a t communication setting. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that individuals may differ in their ability to engage in the resistance strategies that are defined here.

These differences may not only occur between individuals, but also between lupron depot within individuals. An individual may be better in employing strategy A than strategy B, which may lead to a preference for one strategy over another.

Future research could strive to develop a hoq model of resistance that includes not only resistance strategies and their motives, but also individual abilities and situational factors. In addition, ne a model tk incorporate more complex patterns of resistance, whereby strategies are combined sequentially in response to a spantran attempt.

For example, one may first try how to be avoid persuasive messages in a johnson f115 domain, but if this strategy fails, other strategies may be employed subsequently. For example, Chaiken et al. How to be hdl good cholesterol, however, is not always feasible, so that other strategies need to be employed.



06.10.2019 in 21:07 Bagar:
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07.10.2019 in 11:25 Shakazil:
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08.10.2019 in 07:01 Duzuru:
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