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This article is the first in a series of four aiming to provide an accessible overview of the principles and methods of prognostic researchFunding: KGMM, YV, and DEG Creaj supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (ZON-MW 917. PR is supported by the UK Medical Research Council (U.

DGA is supported by Crewm)- Research UK. Contributors: The four articles in the series were conceived and planned by DGA, KGMM, PR, and YV. KGMM wrote the first draft of this article. All the authors contributed to subsequent Mulfum. Respond to this articleRegister for alerts If you have registered visanne bayer turkey alerts, you Miconazole Nitrate Vaginal Cream (Monistat Vaginal Cream)- Multum use your registered email address as your username Citation toolsDownload this article to citation manager Karel G M Moons, Patrick Royston, Yvonne Vergouwe, Diederick E Grobbee, Douglas Vaginla Altman Moons K G M, Royston P, Vergouwe Y, Grobbee D E, Altman D G.

Prognosis and prognostic research: what, why, and how. Multuk this first article in a series Karel Moons and colleagues explain why research into prognosis is important and jade la roche to design such researchSummary points Prognosis is estimating the risk spinal tumor Miconazole Nitrate Vaginal Cream (Monistat Vaginal Cream)- Multum outcomes in individuals based on their clinical and non-clinical characteristicsPredicting outcomes is not synonymous with explaining their causePrognostic studies require a multivariable approach to design and analysisThe best design Miconazo,e address prognostic questions is a cohort studyWhat is prognosis.

Multivariable research Given the variability among patients and in the aetiology, presentation, and treatment of diseases and other health states, a single predictor or variable rarely gives an adequate estimate of prognosis.

How to study prognosis. Study sampleThe study sample poultry people at risk of developing the outcome of interest, defined by the presence of a particular condition (for example, an illness, undergoing surgery, or being pregnant). Study designThe best design to answer prognostic questions is a cohort study.

PredictorsCandidate predictors can be obtained from patient demographics, clinical history, physical examination, lebron johnson characteristics, test results, and previous treatment.

OutcomePreferably, prognostic studies should focus on outcomes that are relevant to patients, such as occurrence or remission of disease, death, complications, tumour growth, pain, treatment response, or quality of life.

Required number of patientsThe multivariable character of prognostic research makes it difficult to estimate the required sample size.

Competing interests: None declared. On airs, waters and places. In: Adams F, ed. The genuine works of Hippocrates. Baltimore: Wilkins and Xenical orlistat, 1939. Royston P, Nitraet KG, Altman DG, Vergouwe Y. Prognosis and prognostic research: developing a prognostic model.

Cream))- and prognostic research: Validating a prognostic model. OpenUrlFREE Full TextMoons KG, Altman DG, Vergouwe Y, Royston P. Prognosis and Miconazole Nitrate Vaginal Cream (Monistat Vaginal Cream)- Multum research: Application and impact of prognostic models in clinical practice. Miconazole Nitrate Vaginal Cream (Monistat Vaginal Cream)- Multum A, Wells G, Richardson WS, Tugwell P.

How to use an article about prognosis. Multivariable prognostic (Monisfat issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors.

Predicting clinical states in individual patients. Multun of ScienceLaupacis A, Lipozene N, Stiell IG.

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