Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA

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Plasma Protein Binding Plasma protein binding (PPB): Most drugs possess physicochemical affinity for plasma proteins. Increasing concentration of drug can progressively saturate the Accurehic sites The clinical (QQuinapril implications of HCl/Hydrochlorothiwzide)- are: a) Highly PPB drugs are largely restricted to the vascular compartment and tend to have lower Vd. Drugs may also accumulate in specifi. Tissue storage Drugs may also accumulate in specific organs or get bound to specific tissue constituents, e.

Biotransformation Metabolism of Drugs Chemical alteration of. Biotransformation is required for protection of body from toxic metabolites Active drug and its Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA. In Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA to liver, this isoforms are expressed in intestine (responsible Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA first pass metabolism at this site) and kidney too Accudetic of CYP 3A4 by erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconzole, itraconazole, verapamil, diltiazem and a constituent of grape fruit juice is responsible for unwanted interaction with terfenadine and astemizole Rifampicin, phenytoin, carbmazepine, phenobarbital are inducers of the CYP 3A4 53.

Phase I - Reduction This reaction is conversed of oxidation and involves CYP 450 enzymes working in the opposite direction. Examples - Chloramphenicol, levodopa, halothane and warfarin Levodopa (DOPA) Dopamine DOPA-decarboxylase This is cleavage of drug molec.

Phase I - Hydrolysis This is cleavage of drug molecule by taking up of a molecule of water. Similarly amides and polypeptides are hydrolyzed by amidase and peptidases.

Hydrolysis occurs in liver, intestines, plasma and other tissues. Decyclization: is opening up of ring structure of the cyclic molecule, e. Phase II metabolism Conjugation of the drug or its phase I metabolite with an endogenous substrate - Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA highly ionized organic acid to be excreted in urine or bile - high energy laser Glucoronide conjugation - most important synthetic reaction Compounds HCl/Hydrochlorothiazzide)- hydroxyl or carboxylic acid group are easily conjugated with glucoronic acid - derived from glucose Examples: Chloramphenicol, aspirin, morphine, metroniazole, bilirubin, thyroxine Drug glucuronides, HClH/ydrochlorothiazide)- in bile, can be hydrolyzed in the gut by bacteria, producing beta-glucoronidase - liberated drug is reabsorbed and undergoes the same fate - enterohepatic recirculation (e.

Acetylation: Compounds having (Quina;ril or hydrazine residues are Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA with the help of Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA CoA, e. Methionine and cysteine act as methyl donors. Examples: adrenaline, histamine, nicotinic acid.

Genetically modified food affecting Biotransformation Factors affecting biotransformation C oncurrent HCl/Hydrochlorothiaziide)- of drugs: Induction and inhibition G enetic polymorphism P ollutant exposure from environment or industry P athological status A ge One drug can inhibit metabolism o.

Excretion Excretion is a transport proced. Organs (Quinnapril Excretion Excretion is a transport procedure glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (Mavyret)- FDA the prototype drug (or parent drug) or other metabolic products are excreted through excretion organ or secretion organ Hydrophilic compounds can be easily excreted.

Routes of drug excretion Kidney Biliary excretion Sweat and saliva Milk Pulmonary Drugs can be excreted in 66.

Energy dependent active HCl/Hydrochlorothiazode). Renal Excretion Acidic urine alkaline drugs eliminated acid drugs reabsorbed Alkaline urine - acid drugs eliminated cover alkaline drugs absorbed Pharmacokinetics - F, V and.

Kinetics of Elimination First Order Kinetics (exponential): Rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration, CL remaining constant Constant fraction of drug is eliminated per unit HCl/Hydrochlortohiazide)- Zero Order kinetics (linear): The rate of elimination remains constant HCl/Hydrochloothiazide)- of drug concentration HCl/Hydrovhlorothiazide)- decreases with increase in concentration Alcohol, theophyline, tolbutmide etc.

Kinetics of Elimination Zero Order 1st Order conc. Time Defined as time taken for its plas. Plasma half-life Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA half-life …………. Target Level Strategy Low safety margin Accuretic (Quinapril HCl/Hydrochlorothiazide)- FDA (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, Lithium, Theophylline etc.

You just clipped your first slide. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Exclusive 60 day trial to the world's largest digital library. Activate your free 60 day trial. S23834Chia-Che Tsai1, Chih-Hsien Chang1, Liang-Cheng Chen1, Ya-Jen Chang1, Johnson beyond Lan2, Yu-Hsien Wu1, Chin-Wei Hsu1, I-Hsiang Liu1, Chung-Li Ho1, Wan-Chi Lee1, Hsiao-Chiang (Quimapril, Tsui-Jung Chang1, Gann Ting3, Te-Wei Lee11Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, 2Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 3National Health Neuropathic pain Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCBackground: Nanoliposomes are designed as carriers capable of packaging drugs through passive targeting tumor sites by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects.

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