Log In Sign Up. Organizational interventions are targeted at most but not all of these sources, and their effectiveness is likely to be limited, at least in the short to medium term. Designs are complex, but PAR provides the means of resolving critical issues of stakeholder engagement, including managers, and of ensuring a reliable evaluation strategy. An evaluation problem is also introduced by the timescale required for impacts 32 to be discernible Boivie et al. This is also supported by a review by Kompier et al. Individuals must be supported better, but this is hindered by lack of understanding of how sources of stress vary between different practice areas, lack of predictive power of assessment tools, and a lack of understanding of how personal and workplace factors interact.
Development of an action plan for sustaining the process of change Steering group: Whereas participatory approaches can have successful outcomes Jordan et al. Efforts to ensure a good match for the groups are especially apparent in the Bond and Bunce study, but despite having addressed many of the difficulties inherent in applying randomized selection strategies the authors note that there may still have been important, unknown differences between them, for example in relation to roles and responsibilities. Summary and conclusions There is evidence that PAR designs can have predominantly positive outcomes for major stress indicators, including job performance and productivity, absenteeism and mental health, but there is inconsistency with some studies reporting either partial or little overall impact Jordan et al. PAR provides scope to engage managers as participants.
Participatory approaches are recognized as being potentially challenging as so many staff groups may be involved.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
Briner and Reynolds, ; Lamontagne et al. Whilst specifically Workplace stress related to stress research, the focus was more concerned with community interventions development or public health than with workplace stress management, and so the papers were rejected.
Group discussions usually provided the source of data and at the same time a method of developing the project tasks. This seemed less problematic for short-term pragmatic outcomes, such as a support group and self-management pack for returnees to work for NHS staff Munn-Giddings et al.
Hurrell and Murphy suggest that workplace interventions fall into three categories: Discussions with staff on each shift mccicar each fire station, and with managers to develop reeview and agree timeframe: Studies that have applied highly collaborative approaches and have achieved demonstrable positive outcomes therefore provide an opportunity to identify features that may inform future research.
PAR can be effective here, for example, Heaney et al.
This could have implications for measures being introduced to address litfrature of stress in nursing. The study by Heaney et al. Intuitively, the pluralistic basis to workplace stress suggests that stress management is most likely to be successful for the majority of employees if intervention comprehensively addresses sources of stress within the work environment, and their interactions Bond, ; Michie and Williams, Six of the 11 studies took place in the statutory sector i.
PAR provides scope to engage managers as participants. Action plans USA labour-management relations on presented to joint meetings of management and unions.
For most, the focus of the research was on specific dimensions, such as job workload control Bond and Bunce, ; indeed those authors suggested that an intervention is likely to be most effective if specific issues are targeted.
Eight studies only included.
The timescale for an intervention to have a confirmative impact is difficult to ascertain. Prioritize constraints, develop action plans Implementation teams: Aims and objectives 20 Participatory approaches to changing the workplace clearly must operate within the organizational context in which the interventions take place.
Evaluation Studies were longitudinal in design, providing a before-after evaluation of the intervention.
Efforts to ensure a good match for the groups are especially apparent in the Bond and Bunce study, but despite having addressed many of the difficulties inherent in applying randomized selection strategies the authors note that there may still have been important, unknown differences between them, for example in relation to roles and responsibilities.
Achieving this will require further comparative studies, and new tools to evaluate the intensity of individual distress. Participants in PAR studies additionally gain mcvciar generic benefits from the PAR process itself Winter and Munn-Giddings,and several studies in the sample identified that the introduction of new skills and new collaborative ways of working brought such benefits even before any intervention had started.
Although mainly positive, some studies also reported some negative outcomes. Evaluating categories or dimensions of work, rather than specific sources of stress, reduces situational specificity Van Veldhoven et al.
The resultant self-assessment tool for employees is available at www. The participatory process was least effective where this was unsuccessful. There is evidence that the Halbesleben et al.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
The fifth survey was nine months after the Work Environment Scales intervention Turnover rate from staff records Heaney et al. Skip to main content. Participatory action research PARa form of action research that explicitly has a high degree of participant engagement in International Journal of Workplace part or all of the research process, specifically embraces the principle of empowerment Health Management Vol.
Four of the papers actually referred to just two studies, but for two papers Lavoie- Tremblay, ; Lavoie-Tremblay et al. Forums were mainly action or project groups of some sort that met periodically five to ten meetings over the duration of the project, a few months to five years depending upon the study. The author suggests that established hierarchical decision-making processes, and inequality of power in the company were critical factors, the implication being that engagement of management and the perceived benefits of change, are more important than how an interventional project is initiated.